India has a rich biodiversity being represented by about 45,500 plant, 350 mammal, 25,000 fish, 12,000 birds and over 60,000 insect species. The state of U.P.is represented by 56 species of mammals, 552 of birdsof which 24 are globally threatened, 47 reptiles, 19amphibians and 79 fishes. The Sarus Crane has been declared as the State Bird. 25 important Bird areas have been designated. The flora of the state is composed of a total of 3987 species of which 2711 are higher plants (angiosperms) representing 18% of the countries angiospermic flora. 10 species are endemic. The common trees are Sal, Teak, Sissoo, Semal,Haldu, Tun, Kanju, Mango, Jamun, Neem, Bamboo,Peepal, Gutel, Tamarind, Poplar, Arjun, Babool, Amla and others.
The State has one National Park and 23 Wildlife Sanctuaries covering 5,712 km2 which is 2.37% of the state’s geographical area. The fauna of UP consists of Tigers, Cats, antelopes, Deer, Wild Boars,Elephants, Rhinos and other animals.Eight mammalian species viz the Swamp Deer, wild Dog, Bobabs Marmot, Musk Deer, Tiger, Leopard, Gangetic Dolphin and Asian Elephant are regarded as endangered. In terms of birds, Uttar Pradesh is home to various species such as Painted Storks, Black and White-necked Storks, Saras Cranes, Great Indian Horned-owl, Jungle Owlet, Colorful woodpeckers, Barbets, Kingfishers, Minivans, Bee-eaters and Bulbuls.
The largest wildlife reserve in the state is Dudhwa National Park that is situated in the district of Lakhimpur Kheri. It stretches in an area of nearly 500 square kilometers. Dudhwa National Park is close to the Tarai region of Nepal and boasts of a wide fauna and flora. Tiger and Rhinos are the two animals that are worth seeing in this park. Apart from Dudhwa, the other very important reserve is Chandra Prabha sanctuary that is situated in the district of Mughal Sarai. Though this park is devoid of any member of the Indian Cat families, it has various species of Deer and Antelopes. It covers an area of less than 80 square kilometers.The park boasts off Chinkara, Sambar and Chital.
Extending from the districts of Mirzapur in UP to Bhojpur in Bihar, the Kaimoor wildlife sanctuary covers an area of around 500 square kilometers. This sanctuary is famous for Tarai Panthers andBlackbuck. Equally popular is NawabGunj bird sanctuary near Lucknow. This bird sanctuary boasts of some of the rare bird species in India. Among others, Pochard and Shoveller can be found in abundance in this park. Apart from these major wildlife reserves, there are some minor ones too such as Katarniaghat, Hastinapur and National hambal wildlife sanctuary.