The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is a Central Act of Parliament providing for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto with the view to ensuring the ecological and environmental securities of the country. It extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The act provides for the constitution of a National Board for Wildlife with the Prime Minister as the Chairperson. The National Board shall promote the conservation and development of wildlife and forests by such measures as it thinks fit. The act also provides for the constitution of a State Board for Wildlife to advise the state government in matters connected with the protection of wildlife. The act regulates the hunting of wild animals and protection of specified plants. It also empowers the State Government to notify Sanctuaries, National Parks, and Game Reserves. It has also setup a National Tiger Conservation Authority and regulates trade or commerce in wild animals, animal articles and trophies.
Contravention of provision of the act are punishable with imprisonment from 1 to 7 years and / with fine upto Rs. 50 lakhs depending on the nature of offence.