Published on 21/05/2011
First Update 24/03/2017
Status of Pollution Control in Tanneries of Uttar Pradesh As on July 2016
The Central Pollution Control Board has presented a document on the status of Seriously Polluting Industries in U.P., before the Honourable National Green Tribunal on 20-07-2014, in the matter of M.A. No. 879 of 213 in O.A. No. 299 of 2013, Krishan Kant and Anr. vs National Ganga River Basin Authority and others.
As per the report, the following status was given for the 429 Tanneries and other allied leather Industries in Uttar Pradesh.
- Total Number of Serious polluting tanneries-392.
- Number of Tanneries which have installed Pollution Control Systems and meet norms -342.
- Number of Tanneries which have installed Pollution Control Systems but do not meet norms -47.
- Number of Tanneries which have not installed the Pollution Control System-03.
In addition to these 392 tanneries, 37 other leather industries have been identified as not seriously polluting possessing Pollution Control Systems.
The Central Pollution Control Board, in another affidavit filed before the NGT on 16-08-2016 suggested that the CETP at Jajmau, Unnao and Banthar should be upgraded to meet the standards of Fixed Dissolved solids and Chromium within 12 months and this should be followed by tertiary treatment which could include Reverse osmosis/Evaporation. The Jajmau, Kanpur CETP (as on date catering to 260 operating units) with a capacity of 36 MLD, the Unnao CETP (as on date catering to 14 operating units) with a capacity of 4.5 MLD (in another report the CPCB mentions 2.15 MLD) and the Banthar CETP (as on date catering to 25 operating units ) with a capacity of 4.15 MLD, all dedicated to Tannery effluents, were found non compliant.
Another document published by the CPCB and entitled ‘A report on Ganga Matters’, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh and submitted to the NGT on 25-07-2016 has indicated that at all the above three CETP’s are dedicated to Tanneries and the concentration of many parameters such as BOD, COD, suspended solids, chlorides, total chromium and oil and grease are not meeting the standards.
The 36 MLD CETP, at Jajmau, Kanpur, for the treatment of waste water was designed for wastes generated from 175 Tanneries, the numbers of which have presently gone up to 402 Tanneries of which only 260 were operating on the date of report. The plant was established in 1994 with a 1:3 mixing of Industrial waste waters (Tannery) and sewage effluents and based on the UASB technology. It has been stated that one of the conditions adversely affecting the CETP is the poor quality of primary treated waste water being generated by the member units. The chrome recovery unit at the CETP is also not being utilised properly.
The CETP for tanneries at Unnao was commissioned in October 1995 with a capacity of 2.15 MLD and planned to treat waste waters generated form 25 tanneries. It is based on a two stage activated sludge technology followed by tertiary treatment of a capacity of 2.15 MLD. All the 21 Members (only 14 being in operation at the time of the report) have a primary effluent treatment plant for removal of solids and Chromium recovery units for removal of chromium. Poor operation of the ETP’s and CRU’s has been reported.
The CETP, Banthar, Unnao was commissioned in October 2004 with a capacity of 4.5 MLD (Average 2.6 to 2.9 MLD being treated) to treat waste water generated from 45 tannery and allied units at Banthar. This is also based on a two stage activated sludge process technology with tertiary clarification. Out of the 45 members, 25 were operational at the time of survey in November 2015. All the Members have a primary effluent treatment plant and a Chrome recovery unit .The reasons for non compliance to norms has been attributed to be due to inefficient working of the PETP’s.
Status of Pollution Control in Tanneries in U.P. As on 2011
The U.P. Pollution Control Board has identified 469 tannery industries in the state out of which 404 tanneries are treated in Kanpur.
- Details of effluent treatment system in 404 tanneries installed at Kanpur is as follows:
- Based on vegetable tanning system – 198
- I. Primary effluent treatment system installed – 102
- II. Based on drying system – 24
- III. Closed due to their own reasons – 48
- IV. Closed by the orders of the Honorable Courts/Board – 24
- Based on Chrome Tanning System – 206
- I. Having Chrome Recovery Unit/Member of Common – 166
Chrome Recovery Unit/Primary
Effluent System installed.
- II. Closed due to their own reasons – 13
- III. Closed by the orders of the Honorable Courts/Board – 27
A Common Chrome recovery unit has been established at Jajmau, Kanpur for small tannery industries by the Municipal Corporation financed by The Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. Total 76 tanning industries are members of Common Chrome Recovery Plant and 90 chrome tanning units have installed their own chrome recovery units within their premises. Currently the total capacity of the common plant is not being utilized because of lack of drum dryer. As per the information form the Municipal Commissioner, finance is being sought from the Government of India for installing the Drum Dryer.
9 MLD industrial wastes is being generated from the tannery industries at Jajmau, which is put into the common conveyance system after primary treatment (installed in the premises of the individual industries) this combines with 27 MLD municipal waste water and is treated in a Combined Effluent Treatment Plant. The treated effluents have generally been observed to be beyond the prescribed norms. This is mainly because of week operation and maintenance management and the need for upgradation.
- In addition to Kanpur, a total of 65 Tanneries are located in other districts as follows:
a. Kanpur Dehat – 02
b. Meerut – 04
c. Muzaffer Nagar – 01
d. Mathura – 02
e. Agra – 03
f. Gautambudh Nagar – 04
g. Ghaziabad – 03
h. Barabanki – 05
i. Unnao – 41
Out of these 26 industries are closed. The balance 39 tanneries have their own Pollution Control Systems or are joined to the 02 combined plants at Banthar Unnao and Unnao UPSIDC Site II.
Common Waste Management Industries
The Banthar Industrial Pollution Control Company
This Leather Technology Park set up on 286.16 acres at Banthar, Unnao, U.P. India on NH 25, 20 km from Kanpur and 9 kms from Unnao is an initiative of the government of U.P. to provide an integrated leather processing complex which includes a common effluent treatment plant and a common hazardous waste disposal facility. Based on an earlier model also working at Unnao, the constituent units of the region have come together and formed a separate company, registered under the companies act and with an objective to set up and operate the CETP and waste disposal facility. The Banthar Industrial Pollution Control Company looks after the installation, operation and maintenance of the 4.5 mld capacity CETP set up in an area of 12 acres and the common hazardous waste management facility set up in an area of 18 acres within the complex. Each constituent unit is expected to install an individual Chrome Recovery Unit and primary effluent treatment plant to ensure that primary standards prescribed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India are complied with. The CETP was commissioned in October 2004 with a project cost of Rs. 6.00 with a promoters contribution of Rs 2.99 crores and a matching grant of Rs. 2.99 crores from CIB/ASIDE. The treated effluents from the CETP are discharged (through the UPSIDC drainage) finally into the City Jail drain which ultimately meets the river Ganga after a distance of 30 kms. The CETP is based on the Activated sludge process with a two stage aeration system and a polishing tertiary system.
Forty two tanning and allied industries constitute the member units. Presently (2008) 12 units were operating with a discharge of 1886 KLD effluent to the CETP
The unit operations consist of a Barscreen, grit chamber, equalization tank, flash mixer (lime alum), clarifloccnlator, 1st stage Aeration tank, with a low speed 25 HP fixed surface aerators, 2nd stage aeration tank with 10 low speed 15 HP fixed surface aerators, 1st stage peripherally driven biological clarifier with central shell, 2nd stage peripherally driven biological clarifier with central shell and a tertiary clarifier with dosing arrangements along with sludge drying beds. The treated effluents from the CETP have been able to achieve a pH of 7.5 (5.5 -9.0), suspended solids 98 mg/l (100 mg/l), BOD of 22.00 mg/l (30 mg/l), COD of 88 mg/l (250.00 mg/l) and a total chromium of 1.8 (2.0 mg/l). (The prescribed standards are mentioned in parenthesis.) Consents under section 25/26 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 have been granted to the CETP from 2005 through 2008. The cost of treatment works out to be Rs. 9.25/KL based on water consumed by the constituent tannery.
Joint effort have also been made for safe disposal of hazardous sludge generated not only from tanneries situated at Banthar but also from other industrial areas in Unnao. The secured landfill site has also been developed at Banthar, properly lined and with leachate collection and disposal facility. This is expected to cater to 3 to 5 years of sludge generation from all leather and allied industries at Unnao site I, II and III and Banthar. Industries have now formed a separate registered company by the name of “Industrial Infrastructure services (India) Ltd “. The project proposals submitted by this company for the development of a TSDF on 33 acres of land at CETP Banthar at a cost of Rs. 17 crores and cleared by the government of India shall benefit about 130 industries at Unnao. The TSDF has been commissioned w.e.f. October 2008.
The Unnao Tanneries Pollution Control Company:
Commissioned in 1995, this combined effluent treatment plant managed by the Unnao Tanneries Pollution Control Company treats 2.15 MLD effluents from 21 member industries (Tanning and Allied). The company was constituted as a sequel to the World Bank assisted ‘Industrial Pollution Control Project’ which envisaged the setting up of CETPs with 20% promoter’s contribution,25% subsidy from state government (Through the Department of Environment Budget), 25% Subsidy from Central Government and 30% soft loan from World Bank through I.D.B.I.. The CETP works are situated at A-7, Site-2, UPSIDC Industrial Area, Unnai, U.P., India and for the last about 14 years have served as a model for successful cooperative management of waste.
The effluent generated by member units is first subject to primary treatment in the generating industry. This necessarily consists of a Bar Green, Equalization Tank, Chemical dosing tank, settling tank, and sludge drying beds, The primary effluents are then transferred through underground conveyance system to the CETP for treatment. The Chrome tanning units separately treat and recover the basic chrome sulphate from spent chrome Liquor. This is reused in the tanning process.
At the CETP the primary treated effluents are treated by a two stage aerobic activated sludge process and treated effluent with a pH of 7.3 to 7.5, Suspended Solids of 60 to 90 mg/l , BOD of 20 to 29 mg/l, COD of 200 to 240 mg/l and very low quantities of chromium III (0.32 to BDC) discharged into the Loni drain which generally dries out on land but which meet the river Ganga at a distance of about 146 kms during the rainy season. The CETP consist of a Bar Screen Chamber, 2 Nos equalization/Holding Tanks with 12 hours detention, 1 No. clarifloccnlation tank, a primary aeration tank with a hydrometric retention time of 24 hours, 4 aerators of 24 HP capacity each and an operating cycle of 4 days. This is followed by the 1st stage secondary clarifier with a detention time of 3 hours. The second stage aeration tank also has 4 aerators of 20 HP, a detention time of 24 hours and operating cycle of 17 to 20 days and is followed by a 2.5 hours detention time 2nd stage secondary clarifiers. The ETP sludges are dried in 28 sludge drying beds.